Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate
25 Kg Bag
Sodium bicarbonate, commonly referred to as baking soda and denoted by the molecular formula NaHCO3, is a white crystalline or powdery substance that easily dissolves in water or mineral springs. It is naturally found in minerals such as nahcolite or thermokalite. Serving as an amphoteric compound, sodium bicarbonate interacts with both acidic and basic substances. Its reaction with acetic acid results in sodium acetate, while with base compounds like sodium hydroxide, it forms carbonates. When exposed to temperatures exceeding 149°C, sodium bicarbonate undergoes decomposition, producing sodium carbonate along with the release of water and carbon dioxide as by-products.
The production of sodium bicarbonate can be achieved through the Solvay process, which was originally introduced by Ernest Solvay in the 1860s. This method involves the reaction of sodium chloride with carbon dioxide and ammonia in water. The sodium bicarbonate obtained through this process has the potential to be transformed into other compounds like soda ash (Na2CO3) or washing soda (Na2CO3.10H2O). The manufacturing procedure is outlined below:
1. Production of Sodium Bicarbonate
The manufacturing process involves the reaction of sodium chloride with carbon dioxide and ammonia in water. Calcium carbonate serves as the supplier of carbon dioxide in this reaction, with the resulting calcium oxide acting to separate ammonia from ammonium chloride. Dry ice is an alternative source of carbon dioxide. The reaction is as follows:
NaCl(aq) + NH3(aq) + CO2(s) + H2O → NH4Cl(aq) + NaHCO3(s)
2. Retrieving Sodium Bicarbonate
The outcome of the reaction in step 1 results in sodium bicarbonate and ammonium chloride. Both compounds are soluble at room temperature; however, below room temperature, ammonium chloride exhibits greater solubility than sodium bicarbonate, facilitating the extraction of crystals from the solution. An alternative method involves extracting sodium bicarbonate from ammonium chloride by reacting calcium hydroxide with ammonium chloride. This process yields ammonia gas, water vapor, and liquid-phase calcium chloride as products.
In the culinary sector, sodium bicarbonate is commonly employed as a leavening agent. It reacts with a minimal amount of acid, such as vinegar or buttermilk, producing bubbles that impart a soft and airy texture to the dough. The combination of sodium bicarbonate and acid can serve as a substitute for yeast in facilitating dough rise. Additionally, sodium bicarbonate finds application in creating effervescent salts and beverages.
A significant use of sodium bicarbonate is in the treatment of wool and silk fabrics within the textile industry. It plays a role in dyeing processes and is utilized in both the dyeing and leather sectors. Sodium bicarbonate is extensively employed in textile operations for dyeing and printing. Moreover, the leather industry utilizes it as a neutralizing agent during the tanning process.
Disinfectants and Cleaning Industry
Sodium bicarbonate is incorporated into cosmetics to regulate pH as a pH adjuster. Adding a small amount to shampoo imparts shine to hair and removes product residues. In facial washes, sodium bicarbonate aids in pore cleansing and acne prevention. Within disinfectants, it serves as an effective agent for eliminating household pests such as roaches and ants.
Rubber and Plastic Industry
The rubber and plastic manufacturing sector utilizes sodium bicarbonate as a blowing agent, leading to the release of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is instrumental in molding materials composed of rubber and plastic, and the material's structure can be adjusted based on the quantity of sodium bicarbonate added.
Sodium bicarbonate, being an alkali substance soluble in water, finds application in the detergent industry. It is used to regulate pH when acidic compounds are introduced during washing. It can act as a substitute for sodium carbonate, contributing to the formulation of milder detergent products.
Sodium bicarbonate has diverse applications in various industries. In the textile and leather sectors, it is employed for printing, dyeing, and tanning processes. Additionally, sodium bicarbonate is included in livestock feed for nutritional purposes and as a buffering agent for the rumen in dairy cows. Its effectiveness as an anti-pollutant agent makes it valuable for wastewater treatment. Furthermore, sodium bicarbonate stands as a key ingredient in fire extinguishers.